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Drawing with correct proportions and without going out of the paper?

 Sketching and drawing correct proportions and doing so without reaching the end of paper can be achieved easily with one simple technique.
1. How many times has your drawing gone out of the paper?
It can happen to all of us unless we mark out the extreme ends of the drawing, to begin with. 
2. How many times does it happen that you get overall shape of the object all wrong?
 While drawing, do you get engrossed in details so much that you ignore the overall shape of your subject?
“Envelope technique” solves both these problems easily.
Envelope Technique
Imagine that you are wrapping the subject of your drawing in a plastic wrap or imagine that you have to draw the outer shape of your subject using only 6-8 straight lines.


Drawing Envelope with 5 lines - Mandar Marathe Fine Art
Envelope With 5 lines
When you draw the outermost shape of the subject, what you get is an envelope. Depending on the size of the paper you are using, you can draw these envelope lines longer or shorter. This establishes the extreme ends of the drawing on your paper. It helps you see the big shapes and small shapes, it helps you to see the relative proportions of shapes and also establishes the dominant angles in your subject.
Drawing Envelope with few more lines - Mandar Marathe Fine Art
Envelope with few more lines
Once this is established, there is no worrying about reaching the end of paper, incorrect proportions or fear of rework. After this point, it is more of the same. Go on finding progressively smaller and smaller envelopes till you get all the details of the subject. Draw only straight lines, even if you see curves in the subject.
Drawing Envelope with even more lines - Mandar Marathe Fine Art
Envelope with even more lines

Remember that no line is final unless you decide to call it final. You are the artist and you have the authority to correct the lines that you drew earlier. Once you feel that you have drawn enough details, make the correct lines darker to finish your work.

This is just like a sculptor who removes unwanted parts of stone to reveal the sculpture inside. 
Drawing is more about observation skill than anything else. The more you learn to observe your subject, better your drawings will become.
Keep drawing!